Black mangroves (Avicennia germinans) usually grow just inland of the shoreline and can grow over 50 feet in height. Their trunks are dark in color, and their leaves are narrow and pointed, generally dark green above and pale or almost silver below. Clustered flowers are white and fragrant. Black mangroves are able to live where water is stagnant, void of oxygen, or hypersaline (lacking fresh water).
This is, in part, because they have aerating roots called “pneumatophores” which extend upward through the sand where they are exposed to the air at low tide helping to oxygenate the tree. At high tide these root systems provide invaluable shelter to small fish and other aquatic organisms.